So what is Blooms Taxonomy?

Benjamin Bloom, in the 1956 while working at the University of Chicago, developed his theory on Educational Objectives.
He proposed 3 domains or areas:
  • Cognitive - person's ability to process and utilize information (thinking), this is on what Bloom's Digital Taxonomy is based
  • Affective - This is the role of feeling and attitudes in the learning/education process
  • Psychomotor - This is manipulative or physical skills

Bloom's Taxonomy is a taxonomy of activities and behaviours that exemplify Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) and Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS). Bloom's allows use to rank and structure different classroom activities and plan the learning process.

Bloom's Revised Taxonomy

In the 1990's, a former student of Bloom, Lorin Anderson and David Krathwohl, revised Bloom's Taxonomy and published this- Bloom's Revised Taxonomy in 2001. Key to this is the use of verbs rather than nouns for each of the categories and a rearrangement of the sequence within the taxonomy. They are arranged below in increasing order, from Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS) to Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS).


Bloom's Revised Taxonomy Sub Categories

Each of the categories or taxonomic elements has a number of key verbs associated with it
Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS)
  • Remembering - Recognizing, listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, naming, locating, finding
  • Understanding - Interpreting, Summarizing, inferring, paraphrasing, classifying, comparing, explaining, exemplifying
  • Applying - Implementing, carrying out, using, executing
  • Analysing - Comparing, organising, deconstructing, Attributing, outlining, finding, structuring, integrating
  • Evaluating - Checking, hypothesising, critiquing, Experimenting, judging, testing, Detecting, Monitoring
  • Creating - designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing, devising, making
Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)

In the digital age this is how Bloom's Taxonomy can look:


Bloom's and Revised Bloom's give us a learning process.
  • Before you can understand a concept or fact you must remember it,
  • To apply a concept you must understand it first,
  • To evaluate a process you must have analyzed it etc.Each layer builds on the previous The creative process naturally incorporates these elements. You must remember (even if you are learning as you go), understand and apply these principles and concepts, analyze and evaluate the success of your design, the process and concept.

However, we don't need to start at lower order skills and then build piecemeal through the taxonomy towards higher order thinking like creativity. By providing a suitably scaffolded task, the lower order skills of remembering and understanding become inherent in the learning process. By challenging our students to be analytical, evaluative or creative, they will within these processes develop understanding.

Websites for Bloom's Taxonomy

Just for fun!